Seni Perang Sun Tzu

Translated by Lionel Giles Diterjemahkan oleh Lionel Giles

Table of Contents Daftar isi

Chapter 1:  Laying Plans Bab 1: Rencana Petelur

Chapter 2: Waging War Bab 2: Perang pengupahan

Chapter 3: Attach by Stratagem Bab 3: Lampirkan oleh muslihat

Chapter 4: Tactical Dispositions Bab 4: disposisi Taktis

Chapter 5: Energy Bab 5: Energi

Chapter 6: Weak Points and Strong Bab 6: Lemah dan Kuat Poin

Chapter 7: Maneuvering Bab 7: Manuver

Chapter 8: Variation in Tactics Bab 8: Variasi dalam Taktik

Chapter 9: The Army on the March Bab 9: Angkatan Bersenjata pada Maret

Chapter 10: Terrain Bab 10: Terrain

Chapter 11: The Nine Situations Bab 11: Sembilan Situasi

Chapter 12: The Attack by Fire Bab 12: The Attack oleh Api

Chapter 13: The Use of Spies Bab 13: Penggunaan Spies


Chapter 1: Laying Plans Bab 1: Rencana Petelur

Sun Tzu said: The art of war is of vital importance to the State. Sun Tzu berkata: Seni perang sangat penting untuk negara.

It is a matter of life and death, a road either to safety or to ruin. Hence it is a subject of inquiry which can on no account be neglected. Ini adalah masalah hidup dan mati, jalan baik untuk keselamatan atau untuk menghancurkan. Oleh sebab itu adalah subjek penyelidikan yang dapat di rekening tak akan diabaikan.

The art of war, then, is governed by five constant factors, to be taken into account in one’s deliberations, when seeking to determine the conditions obtaining in the field. Seni perang, kemudian, diatur oleh lima faktor konstan, yang harus diperhitungkan dalam pertimbangan yang satu, saat berusaha mendapatkan menentukan kondisi di lapangan.

These are: (1) The Moral Law; (2) Heaven; (3) Earth; (4) The Commander; (5) Method and discipline. Tersebut adalah: (1) Hukum Moral; (2) Surga; (3) bumi; (4) Panglima; (5) Metode dan disiplin.

The Moral Law causes the people to be in complete accord with their ruler, so that they will follow him regardless of their lives, undismayed by any danger. Hukum Moral menyebabkan orang menjadi sesuai lengkap dengan pemimpin mereka, sehingga mereka akan mengikutinya terlepas dari kehidupan mereka, undismayed oleh bahaya.

Heaven signifies night and day, cold and heat, times and seasons. Surga menandakan siang dan malam, dingin dan panas, waktu dan musim.

Earth comprises distances, great and small; danger and security; open ground and narrow passes; the chances of life and death. Bumi terdiri dari jarak, dan kecil; bahaya besar dan keamanan; tanah terbuka dan melewati sempit, kemungkinan hidup dan mati.

The Commander stands for the virtues of wisdom, sincerity, benevolence, courage and strictness. Komandan singkatan dari kebajikan kebijaksanaan, ketulusan, kebajikan, keberanian dan kekerasan.

By method and discipline are to be understood the marshaling of the army in its proper subdivisions, the graduations of rank among the officers, the maintenance of roads by which supplies may reach the army, and the control of military expenditure. Dengan metode dan disiplin harus memahami marshaling tentara di subdivisi yang tepat, yang lulus dari peringkat di antara para perwira, pemeliharaan jalan oleh yang memasok dapat mencapai tentara, dan kontrol pengeluaran militer.

These five heads should be familiar to every general: he who knows them will be victorious; he who knows them not will fail. Kelima kepala harus akrab untuk setiap umum: ia yang tahu mereka akan menang, ia yang tahu mereka tidak akan gagal.

Therefore, in your deliberations, when seeking to determine the military conditions, let them be made the basis of a comparison, in this wise: — (1) Which of the two sovereigns is imbued with the Moral law? Oleh karena itu, dalam pembahasan Anda, saat berusaha menentukan kondisi militer, biarkan mereka dijadikan dasar perbandingan, dalam hal ini bijaksana: – (1) Manakah di antara kedua penguasa dijiwai dengan hukum moral? (2) Which of the two generals has most ability? (2) Manakah di antara dua jenderal memiliki kemampuan yang paling? (3) With whom lie the advantages derived from Heaven and Earth? (3) Dengan siapa berbohong keuntungan yang berasal dari Surga dan Bumi? (4) On which side is discipline most rigorously enforced? (5) Which army is stronger? (4) Pada sisi adalah disiplin yang paling ketat diberlakukan? (5) tentara yang lebih kuat? (6) On which side are officers and men more highly trained? (6) Pada sisi mana yang perwira dan laki-laki yang lebih terlatih? (7) In which army is there the greater constancy both in reward and punishment? (7) Dalam tentara yang ada konstan yang lebih besar baik dalam pahala dan hukuman?

By means of these seven considerations I can forecast victory or defeat. Dengan cara ini tujuh pertimbangan saya dapat meramalkan kemenangan atau kalah.

The general that hearkens to my counsel and acts upon it, will conquer: let such a one be retained in command! Jenderal yang hearkens akan bicaraku dan bertindak atasnya, akan mengalahkan: membiarkan seperti yang dipertahankan dalam perintah! The general that hearkens not to my counsel nor acts upon it, will suffer defeat: — let such a one be dismissed! Jenderal yang hearkens tidak akan bicaraku atau bertindak atasnya, akan menderita kekalahan: – biarkan seperti yang dipecat!

While heading the profit of my counsel, avail yourself also of any helpful circumstances over and beyond the ordinary rules. Sementara pos keuntungan nasihat saya, diri Anda juga memanfaatkan kondisi apapun membantu atas dan di luar aturan biasa.

According as circumstances are favorable, one should modify one’s plans. Menurut sebagai keadaan yang menguntungkan, kita harus mengubah rencana seseorang.

All warfare is based on deception. Semua perang didasarkan pada tipu daya.

Hence, when able to attack, we must seem unable; when using our forces, we must seem inactive; when we are near, we must make the enemy believe we are far away; when far away, we must make him believe we are near. Karena itu, ketika mampu menyerang, kita harus tampak tidak; ketika menggunakan kekuatan kita, kita harus terlihat tidak aktif, ketika kita dekat, kita harus membuat musuh percaya kita jauh; saat jauh, kita harus membuat dia percaya kita dekat .

Hold out baits to entice the enemy. Bertahan umpan untuk menarik perhatian musuh. Feign disorder, and crush him. Pura-pura gangguan, dan menghancurkan dia.

If he is secure at all points, be prepared for him. Jika ia sudah aman di semua titik, akan disiapkan untuknya. If he is in superior strength, evade him. Jika ia adalah kekuatan yang unggul, menghindari dia.

If your opponent is of choleric temper, seek to irritate him. Jika lawan dari marah mudah tersinggung, berusaha untuk mengganggu dia. Pretend to be weak, that he may grow arrogant. Berpura-pura menjadi lemah, bahwa ia bisa tumbuh sombong.

If he is taking his ease, give him no rest. Jika dia sedang santai, beri dia istirahat. If his forces are united, separate them. Jika pasukannya bersatu, pisahkan.

Attack him where he is unprepared, appear where you are not expected. Serang dia mana dia tidak siap, muncul dimana Anda tidak diharapkan.

These military devices, leading to victory, must not be divulged beforehand. Perangkat militer, yang menyebabkan kemenangan, tidak boleh dibocorkan sebelumnya.

Now the general who wins a battle makes many calculations in his temple ere the battle is fought. Sekarang umum yang memenangkan pertempuran membuat banyak perhitungan di kuilnya sebelum pertempuran ini berjuang. The general who loses a battle makes but few calculations beforehand. Para jenderal yang kehilangan pertempuran membuat tapi beberapa perhitungan sebelumnya. Thus do many calculations lead to victory, and few calculations to defeat: how much more no calculation at all! Demikianlah perhitungan banyak mengarah pada kemenangan, dan beberapa perhitungan untuk mengalahkan: berapa banyak lagi perhitungan sama sekali! It is by attention to this point that I can foresee who is likely to win or lose. Ini adalah dengan memperhatikan hal ini saat itu saya bisa meramal siapa yang akan menang atau kalah.


Chapter 2: Waging War Bab 2: Perang pengupahan

Sun Tzu said: In the operations of war, where there are in the field a thousand swift chariots, as many heavy chariots, and a hundred thousand mail-clad soldiers, with provisions enough to carry them a thousand li, the expenditure at home and at the front, including entertainment of guests, small items such as glue and paint, and sums spent on chariots and armor, will reach the total of a thousand ounces of silver per day. Sun Tzu berkata: Pada operasi perang, di mana terdapat di lapangan seribu kereta cepat, seperti kereta banyak berat, dan seratus ribu tentara berbaju mail, dengan ketentuan cukup untuk membawa mereka seribu li, pengeluaran di rumah dan di bagian depan, termasuk hiburan para tamu, benda-benda kecil seperti lem dan cat, dan jumlah yang dibelanjakan untuk kereta dan baja, akan mencapai jumlah seribu ons perak per hari. Such is the cost of raising an army of 100,000 men. Tersebut adalah biaya membesarkan pasukan 100.000 orang.

When you engage in actual fighting, if victory is long in coming, then men’s weapons will grow dull and their ardor will be damped. Bila Anda terlibat dalam pertempuran yang sebenarnya, jika kemenangan sudah lama datang, maka’s senjata pria akan tumbuh kusam dan semangat mereka akan teredam. If you lay siege to a town, you will exhaust your strength. Jika Anda mengepung kota, Anda akan menghabiskan kekuatan Anda.

Again, if the campaign is protracted, the resources of the State will not be equal to the strain. Sekali lagi, jika kampanye yang berkepanjangan, sumber daya Negara tidak akan sama dengan tekanan.

Now, when your weapons are dulled, your ardor damped, your strength exhausted and your treasure spent, other chieftains will spring up to take advantage of your extremity. Sekarang, ketika Anda senjata tumpul, semangat Anda teredam, kekuatan Anda lelah dan harta Anda menghabiskan, pemimpin lain akan bermunculan untuk mengambil keuntungan dari ekstremitas Anda. Then no man, however wise, will be able to avert the consequences that must ensue. Lalu orang tidak, namun bijaksana, akan dapat mencegah konsekuensi yang harus terjadi.

Thus, though we have heard of stupid haste in war, cleverness has never been seen associated with long delays. Jadi, meskipun kami telah mendengar tergesa-gesa bodoh dalam perang, kepandaian belum pernah dilihat terkait dengan penundaan yang lama.

There is no instance of a country having benefited from prolonged warfare. Tidak ada contoh suatu negara memiliki keuntungan dari perang berkepanjangan.

It is only one who is thoroughly acquainted with the evils of war that can thoroughly understand the profitable way of carrying it on. Hanya orang yang benar-benar berkenalan dengan kejahatan perang yang benar-benar dapat memahami cara yang menguntungkan tercatat pada.

The skillful soldier does not raise a second levy, neither are his supply-wagons loaded more than twice. Prajurit terampil tidak meningkatkan retribusi kedua, juga tidak persediaan-wagon dimuat lebih dari dua kali.

Bring war material with you from home, but forage on the enemy. Perang membawa bahan dengan Anda dari rumah, tapi hijauan pada musuh. Thus the army will have food enough for its needs. Dengan demikian tentara akan memiliki makanan yang cukup untuk kebutuhannya.

Poverty of the State exchequer causes an army to be maintained by contributions from a distance. Kemiskinan dari Negara bendahara menyebabkan tentara yang harus dijaga oleh kontribusi dari kejauhan. Contributing to maintain an army at a distance causes the people to be impoverished. Berkontribusi untuk mempertahankan pasukan di kejauhan menyebabkan orang menjadi miskin.

On the other hand, the proximity of an army causes prices to go up; and high prices cause the people’s substance to be drained away. Di sisi lain, kedekatan suatu pasukan tentara menyebabkan harga untuk naik, dan harga yang tinggi menyebabkan orang substansi yang akan terkuras habis.

When their substance is drained away, the peasantry will be afflicted by heavy exactions. Ketika substansi mereka terkuras habis, petani akan menderita oleh exactions berat.

With this loss of substance and exhaustion of strength, the homes of the people will be stripped bare, and three-tenths of their income will be dissipated; while government expenses for broken chariots, worn-out horses, breast-plates and helmets, bows and arrows, spears and shields, protective mantles, draught-oxen and heavy wagons, will amount to four-tenths of its total revenue. Dengan hilangnya substansi dan kelelahan kekuatan, rumah rakyat akan tercabik, dan tiga per sepuluh dari pendapatan mereka akan hilang, sedangkan beban pemerintah untuk kereta rusak, keluar kuda dipakai, payudara-piring dan helm, busur dan panah, tombak dan perisai, mantel pelindung,-lembu dan berat wagon draft, akan berjumlah empat per sepuluh dari total pendapatan.

Hence a wise general makes a point of foraging on the enemy. Oleh karena itu seorang jenderal yang bijaksana membuat titik mencari makan pada musuh. One cartload of the enemy’s provisions is equivalent to twenty of one’s own, and likewise a single picul of his provender is equivalent to twenty from one’s own store. Satu segerobak penuh dari musuh ketentuan ini setara dengan dua puluh satu sendiri, dan juga seorang pikul makanan tunggal nya adalah setara dengan dua puluh dari satu toko sendiri.

Now in order to kill the enemy, our men must be roused to anger; that there may be advantage from defeating the enemy, they must have their rewards. Sekarang dalam rangka membunuh musuh, orang-orang kita harus menggerakkan dirinya untuk marah; bahwa mungkin ada keuntungan dari mengalahkan musuh, mereka harus memiliki manfaat mereka.

Therefore in chariot fighting, when ten or more chariots have been taken, those should be rewarded who took the first. Oleh karena itu dalam memerangi kereta, ketika sepuluh atau lebih kereta telah diambil, mereka harus dihargai yang mengambil yang pertama. Our own flags should be substituted for those of the enemy, and the chariots mingled and used in conjunction with ours. bendera kita sendiri harus diganti bagi musuh, dan kereta berbaur dan digunakan bersama dengan kita. The captured soldiers should be kindly treated and kept. Para prajurit harus ditangkap dan diperlakukan baik terus.

This is called, using the conquered foe to augment one’s own strength. Ini disebut, menggunakan menaklukkan musuh untuk menambah kekuatan sendiri.

In war, then, let your great object be victory, not lengthy campaigns. Dalam perang, kemudian, biarkan objek besar Anda akan kemenangan, bukan kampanye yang panjang.

Thus it may be known that the leader of armies is the arbiter of the people’s fate, the man on whom it depends whether the nation shall be in peace or in peril. Dengan demikian dapat diketahui bahwa pemimpin pasukan adalah orang wasit takdir, orang pada siapa itu tergantung apakah bangsa akan damai atau bahaya.



Chapter 3: Attach by Stratagem Bab 3: Lampirkan oleh muslihat

Sun Tzu said: In the practical art of war, the best thing of all is to take the enemy’s country whole and intact; to shatter and destroy it is not so good. Sun Tzu berkata: Dalam seni praktis perang, hal yang terbaik dari semua adalah untuk mengambil musuh negara secara keseluruhan dan utuh; untuk menghancurkan dan merusak itu tidak begitu baik. So, too, it is better to recapture an army entire than to destroy it, to capture a regiment, a detachment or a company entire than to destroy them. Demikian juga, lebih baik untuk merebut kembali seluruh tentara daripada menghancurkannya, untuk menangkap satu resimen, detasemen atau seluruh perusahaan daripada untuk menghancurkan mereka.

Hence to fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting. Maka untuk melawan dan menaklukkan dalam semua pertempuran Anda tidak keunggulan tertinggi; keunggulan tertinggi terdiri di melanggar perlawanan musuh tanpa pertempuran.

Thus the highest form of generalship is to balk the enemy’s plans; the next best is to prevent the junction of the enemy’s forces; the next in order is to attack the enemy’s army in the field; and the worst policy of all is to besiege walled cities. Jadi bentuk tertinggi keahlian militer adalah untuk menolak musuh rencana, yang terbaik berikutnya adalah untuk mencegah persimpangan musuh memaksa; dalam rangka berikutnya adalah untuk menyerang musuh tentara di lapangan; dan kebijakan terburuk dari semua adalah untuk mengepung berdinding kota.

The rule is, not to besiege walled cities if it can possibly be avoided. The preparation of mantlets, movable shelters, and various implements of war, will take up three whole months; and the piling up of mounds over against the walls will take three months more. Peraturannya adalah, tidak untuk mengepung kota-kota bertembok jika mungkin dapat dihindari;. Penyusunan mantlets bergerak, tempat penampungan, dan menerapkan berbagai perang, akan mengambil seluruh tiga bulan dan menumpuk gundukan atas dinding akan mengambil tiga bulan lagi.

The general, unable to control his irritation, will launch his men to the assault like swarming ants, with the result that one-third of his men are slain, while the town still remains untaken. Itu, umumnya tidak mampu mengendalikan kejengkelannya, akan meluncurkan anak buahnya untuk penyerangan seperti semut dipenuhi, dengan hasil bahwa sepertiga anak buahnya yang gugur, sedangkan kota itu masih tetap untaken. Such are the disastrous effects of a siege. Tersebut dampak buruk dari pengepungan.

Therefore the skillful leader subdues the enemy’s troops without any fighting; he captures their cities without laying siege to them; he overthrows their kingdom without lengthy operations in the field. Oleh karena itu pemimpin yang terampil menundukkan tentara musuh tanpa pertempuran apa pun, ia menangkap kota-kota mereka tanpa petelur mengepung mereka, ia menggulingkan kerajaan mereka tanpa operasi panjang di lapangan.

With his forces intact he will dispute the mastery of the Empire, and thus, without losing a man, his triumph will be complete. Dengan kekuatan yang utuh ia akan sengketa penguasaan Kekaisaran, dan dengan demikian, tanpa kehilangan seorang pria, kemenangannya akan lengkap. This is the method of attacking by stratagem. Ini adalah metode menyerang dengan tipu.

It is the rule in war, if our forces are ten to the enemy’s one, to surround him; if five to one, to attack him; if twice as numerous, to divide our army into two. Ini adalah aturan dalam perang, jika pasukan kita sepuluh musuh satu, mengelilingi dia, jika 5-1, untuk menyerang dia, jika dua kali lebih banyak, tentara kita membagi menjadi dua.

If equally matched, we can offer battle; if slightly inferior in numbers, we can avoid the enemy; if quite unequal in every way, we can flee from him. Jika sama-sama cocok, kita dapat menawarkan pertempuran; jika dalam jumlah sedikit inferior, kita dapat menghindari musuh, jika cukup tidak merata dalam segala hal, kita bisa lari dari padanya.

Hence, though an obstinate fight may be made by a small force, in the end it must be captured by the larger force. Oleh karena itu, meskipun keras kepala perjuangan dapat dilakukan oleh pasukan kecil, pada akhirnya harus diambil oleh gaya yang lebih besar.

Now the general is the bulwark of the State; if the bulwark is complete at all points; the State will be strong; if the bulwark is defective, the State will be weak. Sekarang jenderal adalah benteng dari Negara, jika benteng selesai pada semua titik; Negara akan kuat, jika benteng yang rusak, Negara akan lemah.

There are three ways in which a ruler can bring misfortune upon his army: — (1) By commanding the army to advance or to retreat, being ignorant of the fact that it cannot obey. Ada tiga cara di mana seorang penguasa dapat membawa kemalangan pada pasukannya: – (1) Dengan memerintahkan tentara untuk maju atau mundur, yang peduli terhadap kenyataan bahwa ia tidak dapat taat. This is called hobbling the army. Ini disebut terpincang-pincang tentara. (2) By attempting to govern an army in the same way as he administers a kingdom, being ignorant of the conditions which obtain in an army. (2) Dengan mencoba untuk mengatur tentara dengan cara yang sama seperti ia mengelola kerajaan, menjadi tahu tentang kondisi yang diperoleh dalam angkatan bersenjata. This causes restlessness in the soldier’s minds. Hal ini menyebabkan kegelisahan di benak para prajurit. (3) By employing the officers of his army without discrimination, through ignorance of the military principle of adaptation to circumstances. (3) Dengan menerapkan perwira tentara tanpa diskriminasi, melalui ketidaktahuan tentang prinsip militer adaptasi dengan keadaan. This shakes the confidence of the soldiers. Getar ini kepercayaan dari tentara.

But when the army is restless and distrustful, trouble is sure to come from the other feudal princes. Tetapi ketika tentara gelisah dan tidak percaya, masalah pasti datang dari para pangeran feodal lainnya. This is simply bringing anarchy into the army, and flinging victory away. Hal ini hanya membawa anarki ke tentara, dan melemparkan kemenangan menjauh.

Thus we may know that there are five essentials for victory: (1) He will win who knows when to fight and when not to fight. Jadi kita bisa tahu bahwa ada lima hal penting untuk kemenangan: (1) Dia akan menang yang tahu kapan harus berperang dan kapan tidak melawan. (2) He will win who knows how to handle both superior and inferior forces. (2) Dia akan menang yang tahu bagaimana menangani keduanya kekuatan superior dan inferior. (3) He will win whose army is animated by the same spirit throughout all its ranks. (3) Dia akan menang adalah tentara yang dijiwai oleh semangat yang sama di seluruh jajaran perusahaan. (4) He will win who, prepared himself, waits to take the enemy unprepared. (4) Dia akan menang siapa, mempersiapkan dirinya, menunggu untuk mengambil musuh tidak siap. (5) He will win who has military capacity and is not interfered with by the sovereign. (5) Dia akan menang yang memiliki kapasitas militer dan tidak diganggu oleh sultan.

Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. Oleh karena itu berkata: Jika Anda mengenal musuh dan mengenal diri sendiri, Anda tidak perlu takut hasil dari seratus pertempuran. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. Jika Anda tahu sendiri tetapi tidak musuh, untuk setiap kemenangan yang diperoleh Anda juga akan menderita kekalahan. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle. Jika kamu tidak tahu akan musuh maupun diri sendiri, Anda akan menyerah dalam setiap pertempuran.


Chapter 4: Tactical Dispositions Bab 4: disposisi Taktis

Sun Tzu said: The good fighters of old first put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat, and then waited for an opportunity of defeating the enemy. Sun Tzu berkata: Para pejuang baik tua menempatkan diri mereka di luar pertama kemungkinan kekalahan, dan kemudian menunggu kesempatan mengalahkan musuh.

To secure ourselves against defeat lies in our own hands, but the opportunity of defeating the enemy is provided by the enemy himself. Untuk mengamankan diri terhadap kekalahan terletak di tangan kita sendiri, tetapi kesempatan mengalahkan musuh disediakan oleh musuh sendiri.

Thus the good fighter is able to secure himself against defeat, but cannot make certain of defeating the enemy. Jadi pejuang yang baik mampu mengamankan dirinya sendiri terhadap kekalahan, tetapi tidak bisa membuat tertentu mengalahkan musuh.

Hence the saying: One may know how to conquer without being able to do it. Oleh karena itu berkata: Seseorang mungkin tahu bagaimana untuk menaklukkan tanpa bisa melakukannya.

Security against defeat implies defensive tactics; ability to defeat the enemy means taking the offensive. Keamanan terhadap kekalahan berarti taktik defensif; kemampuan untuk mengalahkan musuh berarti mengambil serangan.

Standing on the defensive indicates insufficient strength; attacking, a superabundance of strength. Berdiri pada defensif menunjukkan kekuatan cukup; menyerang, seorang berlimpah-limpahnya kekuatan.

The general who is skilled in defense hides in the most secret recesses of the earth; he who is skilled in attack flashes forth from the topmost heights of heaven. Jenderal yang terampil dalam menyembunyikan rahasia pertahanan di relung sebagian besar bumi, ia yang terampil dalam serangan berkedip keluar dari ketinggian paling atas surga. Thus on the one hand we have ability to protect ourselves; on the other, a victory that is complete. Dengan demikian di satu sisi kita memiliki kemampuan untuk melindungi diri; di sisi lain, kemenangan yang lengkap.

To see victory only when it is within the ken of the common herd is not the acme of excellence. Untuk melihat kemenangan hanya bila dalam ken dari kawanan umum adalah bukan puncak keunggulan.

Neither is it the acme of excellence if you fight and conquer and the whole Empire says, “Well done!” Baik itu di puncak keunggulan jika Anda melawan dan menaklukkan dan seluruh Kekaisaran berkata, “Bagus!”

To lift an autumn hair is no sign of great strength; to see the sun and moon is no sign of sharp sight; to hear the noise of thunder is no sign of a quick ear. Untuk mengangkat sebuah rambut musim gugur adalah tanda-tanda kekuatan besar; untuk melihat matahari dan bulan tidak terlihat tanda tajam, untuk mendengar bunyi guruh ada tanda telinga cepat.

What the ancients called a clever fighter is one who not only wins, but excels in winning with ease. Apa yang dahulu disebut pejuang cerdas adalah orang yang tidak hanya menang, tetapi unggul dalam memenangkan dengan mudah.

Hence his victories bring him neither reputation for wisdom nor credit for courage. Oleh karena itu kemenangan itu tidak membawa dia reputasi untuk kebijaksanaan atau kredit untuk keberanian.

He wins his battles by making no mistakes. Dia memenangkan pertempuran nya dengan membuat kesalahan. Making no mistakes is what establishes the certainty of victory, for it means conquering an enemy that is already defeated. Tidak membuat kesalahan adalah apa yang menetapkan kepastian kemenangan, karena hal itu berarti menaklukkan musuh yang telah dikalahkan.

Hence the skillful fighter puts himself into a position which makes defeat impossible, and does not miss the moment for defeating the enemy. Oleh karena itu pejuang terampil menempatkan dirinya dalam posisi yang membuat kekalahan tidak mungkin, dan tidak ketinggalan saat ini untuk mengalahkan musuh.

Thus it is that in war the victorious strategist only seeks battle after the victory has been won, whereas he who is destined to defeat first fights and afterwards looks for victory. Jadi, bahwa dalam strategi menang perang hanya berusaha setelah kemenangan pertempuran telah dimenangkan, sedangkan dia yang ditakdirkan untuk mengalahkan perkelahian pertama dan kemudian mencari kemenangan.

The consummate leader cultivates the moral law, and strictly adheres to method and discipline; thus it is in his power to control success. Pemimpin memupuk sempurna hukum moral, dan ketat melaksanakan metode dan disiplin, sehingga dalam kekuasaannya untuk mengendalikan keberhasilan.

In respect of military method, we have, firstly, Measurement; secondly, Estimation of quantity; thirdly, Calculation; fourthly, Balancing of chances; fifthly, Victory. Dalam hal metode militer, yang kita miliki, pertama, Pengukuran, kedua, Perkiraan kuantitas; ketiga, Perhitungan; keempat, Balancing kesempatan; kelima, Victory.

Measurement owes its existence to Earth; Estimation of quantity to Measurement; Calculation to Estimation of quantity; Balancing of chances to Calculation; and Victory to Balancing of chances. Pengukuran berutang keberadaannya ke bumi; Perkiraan kuantitas untuk Pengukuran; Perhitungan untuk Estimasi kuantitas; Perimbangan kesempatan untuk Perhitungan, dan Kemenangan untuk Menyeimbangkan kesempatan.

A victorious army opposed to a routed one, is as a pound’s weight placed in the scale against a single grain. Seorang tentara menang lawan mengalahkan satu, adalah sebagai pound’s berat ditempatkan dalam skala terhadap sebutir.

The onrush of a conquering force is like the bursting of pent-up waters into a chasm a thousand fathoms deep. The deru laju pasukan menaklukkan adalah seperti meledaknya-up perairan terpendam ke jurang yang dalam seribu depa.



Chapter 5: Energy Bab 5: Energi

Sun Tzu said: The control of a large force is the same principle as the control of a few men: it is merely a question of dividing up their numbers. Sun Tzu berkata: Kontrol kekuatan besar adalah prinsip yang sama sebagai kontrol pada beberapa orang: itu hanyalah masalah membagi jumlah mereka.

Fighting with a large army under your command is nowise different from fighting with a small one: it is merely a question of instituting signs and signals. Pertempuran dengan pasukan besar di bawah komando Anda sekali-kali tidak berbeda dari pertempuran dengan yang kecil: ini hanyalah masalah melembagakan tanda dan sinyal.

To ensure that your whole host may withstand the brunt of the enemy’s attack and remain unshaken — this is effected by maneuvers direct and indirect. Untuk memastikan bahwa seluruh host Anda dapat menahan beban dari serangan musuh dan tetap tak tergoyahkan – ini dipengaruhi oleh manuver langsung dan tidak langsung.

That the impact of your army may be like a grindstone dashed against an egg — this is effected by the science of weak points and strong. Bahwa dampak dari tentara Anda mungkin seperti menabrak batu asah telur – ini dipengaruhi oleh ilmu titik lemah dan kuat.

In all fighting, the direct method may be used for joining battle, but indirect methods will be needed in order to secure victory. Dalam pertempuran semua, metode langsung dapat digunakan untuk bergabung dengan pertempuran, tetapi metode tidak langsung akan dibutuhkan untuk mengamankan kemenangan.

Indirect tactics, efficiently applied, are inexhaustible as Heaven and Earth, unending as the flow of rivers and streams; like the sun and moon, they end but to begin anew; like the four seasons, they pass away to return once more. taktik tidak langsung, efisien diterapkan, adalah habis-habisnya sebagai Surga dan Bumi, tak terbatas sebagai aliran sungai dan sungai; seperti matahari dan bulan, mereka akhirnya namun untuk memulai kehidupan baru, seperti empat musim, mereka meninggal untuk kembali sekali lagi.

There are not more than five musical notes, yet the combinations of these five give rise to more melodies than can ever be heard. Tidak lebih dari lima catatan musik, namun kombinasi dari lima melodi menimbulkan lebih dari yang pernah dapat didengar.

There are not more than five primary colors (blue, yellow, red, white, and black), yet in combination they produce more hues than can ever been seen. Ada tidak lebih dari lima warna primer (biru, kuning, merah, putih, dan hitam), namun dalam kombinasi warna yang mereka hasilkan lebih dari yang dapat terlihat.

There are not more than five cardinal tastes (sour, acrid, salt, sweet, bitter), yet combinations of them yield more flavors than can ever be tasted. Tidak lebih dari lima rasa kardinal (asam, tajam, garam, manis, pahit), namun kombinasi dari mereka menghasilkan rasa lebih dari yang pernah bisa dirasakan.

In battle, there are not more than two methods of attack — the direct and the indirect; yet these two in combination give rise to an endless series of maneuvers. Dalam pertempuran, ada tidak lebih dari dua metode serangan – langsung dan tidak langsung; namun kedua dalam kombinasi menimbulkan serangkaian manuver yang tak ada habisnya.

The direct and the indirect lead on to each other in turn. Langsung dan tidak langsung memimpin pada satu sama lain secara bergantian. It is like moving in a circle — you never come to an end. Hal ini seperti bergerak dalam lingkaran – Anda tidak pernah berakhir. Who can exhaust the possibilities of their combination? Siapa yang bisa menguras kemungkinan kombinasi mereka?

The onset of troops is like the rush of a torrent which will even roll stones along in its course. Awal pasukan adalah seperti terburu-buru dari torrent yang bahkan akan roll batu sepanjang dalam perjalanannya.

The quality of decision is like the well-timed swoop of a falcon which enables it to strike and destroy its victim. Kualitas keputusan seperti menyambar tepat waktu baik dari burung elang yang memungkinkan untuk menyerang dan menghancurkan korbannya.

Therefore the good fighter will be terrible in his onset, and prompt in his decision. Oleh karena itu pejuang yang baik akan sangat mengerikan di awal, dan cepat dalam keputusannya.

Energy may be likened to the bending of a crossbow; decision, to the releasing of a trigger. Energi dapat disamakan dengan lentur dari panah otomatis, keputusan, dengan memicu pelepasan.

Amid the turmoil and tumult of battle, there may be seeming disorder and yet no real disorder at all; amid confusion and chaos, your array may be without head or tail, yet it will be proof against defeat. Di tengah kekacauan dan pergolakan pertempuran, mungkin ada gangguan tampak dan belum ada gangguan nyata sama sekali, di tengah kebingungan dan kekacauan, array Anda mungkin tanpa kepala atau ekor, namun akan bukti terhadap kekalahan.

Simulated disorder postulates perfect discipline, simulated fear postulates courage; simulated weakness postulates strength. Simulasi gangguan postulat disiplin sempurna, takut disimulasikan postulat keberanian, kelemahan postulat simulasi kekuatan.

Hiding order beneath the cloak of disorder is simply a question of subdivision; concealing courage under a show of timidity presupposes a fund of latent energy; masking strength with weakness is to be effected by tactical dispositions. Menyembunyikan perintah di bawah jubah gangguan hanyalah sebuah pertanyaan tentang subdivisi; menyembunyikan keberanian bawah menunjukkan timidity mengandaikan dana energi laten; kekuatan masking dengan kelemahan yang akan dipengaruhi oleh kecenderungan taktis.

Thus one who is skillful at keeping the enemy on the move maintains deceitful appearances, according to which the enemy will act. Jadi orang yang terampil di menjaga musuh bergerak menjaga penampilan curang, menurut yang musuh akan bertindak. He sacrifices something, that the enemy may snatch at it. Dia mengorbankan sesuatu, bahwa musuh mungkin merampas hal itu.

By holding out baits, he keeps him on the march; then with a body of picked men he lies in wait for him. Dengan mengulurkan umpan, ia terus dia di barisan, lalu dengan tubuh laki-laki mengambil dia terletak di menunggunya.

The clever combatant looks to the effect of combined energy, and does not require too much from individuals. Terlihat pintar kombatan untuk pengaruh energi gabungan, dan tidak memerlukan terlalu banyak dari individu. Hence his ability to pick out the right men and utilize combined energy. Oleh karena kemampuannya untuk memilih orang-orang benar dan memanfaatkan energi gabungan.

When he utilizes combined energy, his fighting men become as it were like unto rolling logs or stones. Ketika ia menggunakan kombinasi energi, memerangi orang-orangnya menjadi seolah-olah seperti kepada rolling log atau batu. For it is the nature of a log or stone to remain motionless on level ground, and to move when on a slope; if four-cornered, to come to a standstill, but if round-shaped, to go rolling down. Karena sifat dari log atau batu untuk tetap tak bergerak di tanah yang datar, dan bergerak saat di lereng, jika bersisi empat, untuk datang ke berhenti, tapi jika berbentuk bulat, untuk pergi bergulir ke bawah.

Thus the energy developed by good fighting men is as the momentum of a round stone rolled down a mountain thousands of feet in height. Dengan demikian energi yang dikembangkan oleh para pejuang yang baik adalah sebagai momentum dari sebuah batu bulat bergulir di ribuan kaki gunung tinggi. So much on the subject of energy. Begitu banyak tentang masalah energi.


Chapter 6: Weak Points and Strong Bab 6: Lemah dan Kuat Poin

Sun Tzu said: Whoever is first in the field and awaits the coming of the enemy, will be fresh for the fight; whoever is second in the field and has to hasten to battle will arrive exhausted. Sun Tzu berkata: Siapa saja yang pertama di lapangan dan menunggu kedatangan musuh, akan segar untuk memerangi, siapa pun yang kedua di lapangan dan harus mempercepat pertempuran akan tiba habis.

Therefore the clever combatant imposes his will on the enemy, but does not allow the enemy’s will to be imposed on him. Oleh karena itu kombatan pintar memaksakan kehendak-Nya atas musuh, tetapi tidak membiarkan musuh akan yang akan dikenakan padanya.

By holding out advantages to him, he can cause the enemy to approach of his own accord; or, by inflicting damage, he can make it impossible for the enemy to draw near. Dengan mengacungkan keuntungan kepadanya, ia dapat menyebabkan musuh pendekatan kemauannya sendiri, atau, dengan menimbulkan kerusakan, dia dapat membuat tidak mungkin musuh mendekat.

If the enemy is taking his ease, he can harass him; if well supplied with food, he can starve him out; if quietly encamped, he can force him to move. Jika musuh sedang santai, dia bisa mengganggunya, jika baik disertakan dengan makanan, dia bisa kelaparan dia keluar, jika diam-diam berkemah, ia bisa memaksa dia untuk bergerak.

Appear at points which the enemy must hasten to defend; march swiftly to places where you are not expected. Muncul pada titik-titik yang harus segera musuh untuk membela; berbaris dengan cepat ke tempat-tempat di mana Anda tidak diharapkan.

An army may march great distances without distress, if it marches through country where the enemy is not. Seorang tentara bisa berbaris jarak yang sangat jauh tanpa menyebabkan stress, jika pawai melalui negara di mana musuh tidak.

You can be sure of succeeding in your attacks if you only attack places which are undefended. Anda bisa yakin untuk berhasil dalam serangan Anda jika Anda hanya menyerang tempat-tempat yang dipertahankan. You can ensure the safety of your defense if you only hold positions that cannot be attacked. Anda dapat menjamin keamanan pertahanan Anda jika Anda hanya memegang posisi yang tidak dapat diserang.

Hence that general is skillful in attack whose opponent does not know what to defend; and he is skillful in defense whose opponent does not know what to attack. Oleh karena itu umum yang terampil dalam menyerang lawan yang tidak tahu apa yang harus membela, dan ia adalah ahli dalam pertahanan lawan yang tidak tahu apa yang menyerang.

O divine art of subtlety and secrecy! O ilahi seni halus dan kerahasiaan! Through you we learn to be invisible, through you inaudible; and hence we can hold the enemy’s fate in our hands. Melalui Anda kami belajar untuk tidak terlihat, melalui Anda tak terdengar, dan maka kita dapat menahan musuh nasib di tangan kita.

You may advance and be absolutely irresistible, if you make for the enemy’s weak points; you may retire and be safe from pursuit if your movements are more rapid than those of the enemy. Anda mungkin muka dan benar-benar tak tertahankan, jika Anda membuat titik lemah untuk musuh, Anda bisa pensiun dan aman dari pengejaran jika gerakan Anda lebih cepat daripada musuh.

If we wish to fight, the enemy can be forced to an engagement even though he be sheltered behind a high rampart and a deep ditch. Jika kita ingin berperang, musuh dapat dipaksa untuk sebuah pertunangan meskipun ia akan berlindung di balik benteng yang tinggi dan parit dalam. All we need do is attack some other place that he will be obliged to relieve. Yang harus kita lakukan adalah serangan beberapa tempat lain yang akan diwajibkan untuk meringankan.

If we do not wish to fight, we can prevent the enemy from engaging us even though the lines of our encampment be merely traced out on the ground. Jika kita tidak ingin berperang, kita bisa mencegah musuh dari menarik kami meskipun baris perkemahan kami sekadar dilacak di tanah. All we need do is to throw something odd and unaccountable in his way. Semua kita perlu lakukan adalah untuk membuang sesuatu yang aneh dan tidak akuntabel dalam perjalanan.

By discovering the enemy’s dispositions and remaining invisible ourselves, we can keep our forces concentrated, while the enemy’s must be divided. Dengan menemukan musuh disposisi dan sisanya tak terlihat diri kita, kita dapat menjaga kekuatan kami terkonsentrasi, sementara musuh harus dibagi.

We can form a single united body, while the enemy must split up into fractions. Kita bisa bersatu membentuk tubuh tunggal, sementara musuh harus dibagi menjadi fraksi. Hence there will be a whole pitted against separate parts of a whole, which means that we shall be many to the enemy’s few. Maka akan ada seluruh diadu melawan bagian-bagian yang terpisah dari keseluruhan, yang berarti bahwa kita akan banyak musuh sedikit itu.

And if we are able thus to attack an inferior force with a superior one, our opponents will be in dire straits. Dan jika kita mampu untuk menyerang sehingga kekuatan rendah dengan yang unggul, lawan kita akan dalam kesulitan.

The spot where we intend to fight must not be made known; for then the enemy will have to prepare against a possible attack at several different points; and his forces being thus distributed in many directions, the numbers we shall have to face at any given point will be proportionately few. Tempat di mana kita berniat untuk memerangi tidak boleh diketahui, untuk kemudian musuh harus mempersiapkan terhadap kemungkinan serangan di beberapa titik yang berbeda; dan pasukannya yang didistribusikan sehingga banyak arah, angka kita harus muka di dapat memberitahukan poin akan secara proporsional beberapa.

For should the enemy strengthen his van, he will weaken his rear; should he strengthen his rear, he will weaken his van; should he strengthen his left, he will weaken his right; should he strengthen his right, he will weaken his left. Untuk harus memperkuat van musuh, ia akan melemahkan belakangnya; harus ia memperkuat belakang, ia akan melemahkan van-nya; harus ia memperkuat kirinya, ia akan melemahkan kanannya; harus ia memperkuat kanannya, ia akan melemahkan kirinya. If he sends reinforcements everywhere, he will everywhere be weak. Jika dia mengirimkan bala bantuan di mana-mana, ia akan lemah di mana-mana.

Numerical weakness comes from having to prepare against possible attacks; numerical strength, from compelling our adversary to make these preparations against us. Numerik kelemahan berasal dari harus mempersiapkan terhadap kemungkinan serangan; kekuatan numerik, dari menarik musuh kami untuk membuat persiapan terhadap kami.

Knowing the place and the time of the coming battle, we may concentrate from the greatest distances in order to fight. Mengetahui tempat dan waktu pertempuran datang, kita dapat berkonsentrasi dari jarak terbesar untuk memerangi.

But if neither time nor place be known, then the left wing will be impotent to succor the right, the right equally impotent to succor the left, the van unable to relieve the rear, or the rear to support the van. Tetapi jika waktu dan tempat tidak diketahui, maka sayap kiri akan berdaya untuk menolong kanan, kanan sama impoten untuk menolong kiri, van tidak dapat meringankan belakang, atau belakang untuk mendukung van. How much more so if the furthest portions of the army are anything under a hundred LI apart, and even the nearest are separated by several LI! lebih Berapa banyak jadi jika bagian terjauh dari tentara adalah sesuatu yang dibawah seratus LI terpisah, dan bahkan terdekat dipisahkan oleh beberapa LI!

Though according to my estimate the soldiers of Yueh exceed our own in number, that shall advantage them nothing in the matter of victory. Meskipun menurut perkiraan saya para prajurit Yueh melebihi kita sendiri dalam jumlah, bahwa mereka akan keuntungan apa-apa dalam hal kemenangan. I say then that victory can be achieved. Aku katakan kemenangan yang dapat dicapai.

Though the enemy be stronger in numbers, we may prevent him from fighting. Scheme so as to discover his plans and the likelihood of their success. Meskipun musuh lebih kuat dalam angka, kita bisa mencegah dia dari pertempuran. Skema sehingga dapat menemukan rencana-rencana dan kemungkinan keberhasilan mereka.

Rouse him, and learn the principle of his activity or inactivity. Membangunkan dia, dan mempelajari prinsip aktivitasnya atau tidak aktif. Force him to reveal himself, so as to find out his vulnerable spots. Memaksanya untuk mengungkapkan diri, sehingga untuk mencari tahu tempat dirinya yang rapuh.

Carefully compare the opposing army with your own, so that you may know where strength is superabundant and where it is deficient. Hati-hati membandingkan tentara lawan dengan Anda sendiri, sehingga Anda mungkin tahu di mana kekuatan yang berlimpah-limpah dan di mana kekurangan.

In making tactical dispositions, the highest pitch you can attain is to conceal them; conceal your dispositions, and you will be safe from the prying of the subtlest spies, from the machinations of the wisest brains. Dalam membuat disposisi taktis, nada tertinggi yang bisa mencapai adalah untuk menutupi mereka; menyembunyikan disposisi Anda, dan Anda akan aman dari mencongkel mata-mata subtlest, dari intrik dari otak paling bijaksana.

How victory may be produced for them out of the enemy’s own tactics — that is what the multitude cannot comprehend. Bagaimana mungkin kemenangan diproduksi untuk mereka dari taktik sendiri musuh – itulah yang banyak tidak dapat memahami.

All men can see the tactics whereby I conquer, but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved. Semua orang dapat melihat taktik dimana aku mengalahkan, tapi apa tak ada yang bisa lihat adalah strategi dari kemenangan yang berkembang.

Do not repeat the tactics which have gained you one victory, but let your methods be regulated by the infinite variety of circumstances. Jangan mengulangi taktik yang telah mendapatkan satu kemenangan, tetapi biarkan metode Anda akan diatur oleh berbagai keadaan yang tak terbatas.

Military tactics are like unto water; for water in its natural course runs away from high places and hastens downwards. taktik militer seperti air kepada, karena air di alam saja berjalan jauh dari tempat-tempat tinggi dan mempercepat ke bawah.

So in war, the way is to avoid what is strong and to strike at what is weak. Jadi dalam perang, cara ini adalah untuk menghindari apa yang kuat dan untuk menyerang apa yang lemah.

Water shapes its course according to the nature of the ground over which it flows; the soldier works out his victory in relation to the foe whom he is facing. Bentuk air saja sesuai dengan sifat tanah dimana mengalir; prajurit berhasil kemenangannya dalam kaitannya dengan musuh yang ia hadapi.

Therefore, just as water retains no constant shape, so in warfare there are no constant conditions. Oleh karena itu, seperti air tidak mempertahankan bentuk konstan, sehingga dalam perang tidak ada kondisi konstan.

He who can modify his tactics in relation to his opponent and thereby succeed in winning, may be called a heaven-born captain. Dia yang bisa mengubah taktik dalam hubungan dengan lawan dan dengan demikian berhasil menang, bisa disebut sebagai kelahiran kapten surga.

The five elements (water, fire, wood, metal, earth) are not always equally predominant; the four seasons make way for each other in turn. Lima unsur (air, api, kayu, logam, bumi) tidak selalu sama dominan; empat musim membuat jalan bagi satu sama lain secara bergantian. There are short days and long; the moon has its periods of waning and waxing. Ada hari-hari pendek dan panjang; bulan memiliki periode atas berkurang dan waxing.


Chapter 7: Maneuvering Bab 7: Manuver

Sun Tzu said: In war, the general receives his commands from the sovereign. Sun Tzu berkata: Dalam perang, umum menerima perintah dari sultan.

Having collected an army and concentrated his forces, he must blend and harmonize the different elements thereof before pitching his camp. Setelah dikumpulkan tentara dan terkonsentrasi pasukannya, ia harus berbaur dan menyelaraskan berbagai elemen daripadanya sebelum pitching pihaknya.

After that, comes tactical maneuvering, than which there is nothing more difficult. Setelah itu, datang manuver taktis, dari yang tidak ada yang lebih sulit. The difficulty of tactical maneuvering consists in turning the devious into the direct, and misfortune into gain. Kesulitan manuver taktis terdiri dalam mengubah licik ke dalam langsung, dan kemalangan menjadi keuntungan.

Thus, to take a long and circuitous route, after enticing the enemy out of the way, and though starting after him, to contrive to reach the goal before him, shows knowledge of the artifice of DEVIATION. Jadi, untuk mengambil rute yang panjang dan berbelit-belit, setelah menarik musuh menyingkir, dan meskipun mulai menyusul dia dan merancang untuk mencapai tujuan di depannya, menunjukkan pengetahuan tentang kecerdasan penyimpangan.

Maneuvering with an army is advantageous; with an undisciplined multitude, most dangerous. Manuver dengan tentara adalah menguntungkan, dengan banyak yang tidak disiplin, paling berbahaya.

If you set a fully equipped army in march in order to snatch an advantage, the chances are that you will be too late. Jika Anda menetapkan dilengkapi sepenuhnya tentara Maret untuk mengambil keuntungan, kemungkinan besar bahwa Anda akan terlambat. On the other hand, to detach a flying column for the purpose involves the sacrifice of its baggage and stores. Di sisi lain, untuk memisahkan kolom terbang untuk tujuan itu melibatkan pengorbanan bagasi dan toko.

Thus, if you order your men to roll up their buff-coats, and make forced marches without halting day or night, covering double the usual distance at a stretch, doing a hundred LI in order to wrest an advantage, the leaders of all your three divisions will fall into the hands of the enemy. Jadi, jika Anda memesan pria Anda untuk menggulung penggemar mereka-jas, dan membuat pawai terpaksa tanpa terputus-putus atau malam hari, yang mencakup dua kali lipat dari jarak yang biasa di stretch, melakukan seratus LI untuk merebut keuntungan, para pemimpin dari semua Anda tiga divisi akan jatuh ke tangan musuh.

The stronger men will be in front, the jaded ones will fall behind, and on this plan only one-tenth of your army will reach its destination. Orang-orang kuat akan di depan, yang letih akan jatuh di belakang, dan rencana ini hanya sepersepuluh dari tentara Anda akan mencapai tujuannya.

If you march fifty LI in order to outmaneuver the enemy, you will lose the leader of your first division, and only half your force will reach the goal. Jika Anda march lima puluh LI untuk mengungguli musuh, Anda akan kehilangan pemimpin divisi pertama Anda, dan hanya setengah memaksa Anda akan mencapai tujuan.

If you march thirty LI with the same object, two-thirds of your army will arrive. Jika Anda Maret tiga puluh LI dengan objek yang sama, dua-pertiga dari tentara Anda akan tiba.

We may take it then that an army without its baggage-train is lost; without provisions it is lost; without bases of supply it is lost. Kita dapat mengambil itu maka hal pasukan tanpa kereta-nya bagasi hilang; tanpa ketentuan itu hilang, tanpa basa pasokan itu hilang.

We cannot enter into alliances until we are acquainted with the designs of our neighbors. Kita tidak bisa masuk ke dalam aliansi sampai kita berkenalan dengan desain dari tetangga kami.

We are not fit to lead an army on the march unless we are familiar with the face of the country — its mountains and forests, its pitfalls and precipices, its marshes and swamps. Kami tidak cocok untuk memimpin pasukan di barisan kecuali kita kenal dengan wajah negara – gunung-gunung dan hutan, perangkap dan tebing, rawa dan rawa-rawa.

We shall be unable to turn natural advantage to account unless we make use of local guides. Kami tidak akan mampu mengubah keunggulan alami ke account kecuali kita menggunakan pemandu lokal.

In war, practice dissimulation, and you will succeed. Dalam perang, praktik penipuan, dan Anda akan berhasil.

Whether to concentrate or to divide your troops, must be decided by circumstances. Apakah akan berkonsentrasi atau untuk membagi pasukan Anda, harus diputuskan oleh keadaan.

Let your rapidity be that of the wind, your compactness that of the forest. Biarkan kecepatan Anda akan bahwa angin, Anda kompak bahwa hutan.

In raiding and plundering be like fire, is immovability like a mountain. Dalam merampok dan dirampas seperti api, adalah ketenangan seperti gunung.

Let your plans be dark and impenetrable as night, and when you move, fall like a thunderbolt. Biarkan rencana Anda menjadi gelap dan tak tertembus seperti malam, dan ketika Anda bergerak, jatuh seperti disambar petir.

When you plunder a countryside, let the spoil be divided amongst your men; when you capture new territory, cut it up into allotments for the benefit of the soldiery. Bila Anda menjarah pedesaan, biarkan merusak dibagi antara laki-laki Anda, ketika Anda menangkap wilayah baru, memotong-motong ke allotments untuk kepentingan serdadu itu.

Ponder and deliberate before you make a move. Merenungkan dan sengaja sebelum Anda bergerak.

He will conquer who has learnt the artifice of deviation. Dia akan mengalahkan yang telah mempelajari kecerdasan penyimpangan. Such is the art of maneuvering. Tersebut adalah seni manuver.

The Book of Army Management says: On the field of battle, the spoken word does not carry far enough: hence the institution of gongs and drums. Buku Manajemen Angkatan Darat mengatakan: Di medan perang, kata yang diucapkan tidak membawa cukup jauh: maka institusi gong dan drum. Nor can ordinary objects be seen clearly enough: hence the institution of banners and flags. Juga dapat objek biasa dilihat dengan cukup jelas: maka institusi spanduk dan bendera.

Gongs and drums, banners and flags, are means whereby the ears and eyes of the host may be focused on one particular point. Gong dan drum, spanduk dan bendera, merupakan sarana dimana telinga dan mata tuan rumah dapat difokuskan pada satu titik tertentu.

The host thus forming a single united body, is it impossible either for the brave to advance alone, or for the cowardly to retreat alone. Tuan rumah sehingga membentuk tubuh bersatu tunggal, adalah tidak mungkin baik untuk berani maju sendiri, atau untuk pengecut untuk mundur saja. This is the art of handling large masses of men. Ini adalah seni penanganan massa besar orang.

In night-fighting, then, make much use of signal-fires and drums, and in fighting by day, of flags and banners, as a means of influencing the ears and eyes of your army. Pada malam-pertempuran, kemudian, banyak memanfaatkan sinyal-api dan drum, dan dalam pertempuran dengan hari, bendera dan spanduk, sebagai sarana untuk mempengaruhi telinga dan mata tentara Anda.

A whole army may be robbed of its spirit; a commander-in-chief may be robbed of his presence of mind. Seorang tentara mungkin seluruh dirampok semangatnya, seorang komandan-in-chief mungkin dirampok kehadirannya pikiran.

Now a soldier’s spirit is keenest in the morning; by noonday it has begun to flag; and in the evening, his mind is bent only on returning to camp. Sekarang prajurit roh adalah paling tajam di pagi hari; oleh siang hari itu sudah mulai bendera, dan di malam hari, pikirannya dibengkokkan hanya untuk kembali ke perkemahan.

A clever general, therefore, avoids an army when its spirit is keen, but attacks it when it is sluggish and inclined to return. Seorang jenderal pintar, oleh karena itu, menghindari tentara ketika roh-nya tajam, tetapi serangan itu bila lamban dan cenderung untuk kembali. This is the art of studying moods. Ini adalah seni belajar suasana hati.

Disciplined and calm, to await the appearance of disorder and hubbub amongst the enemy: — this is the art of retaining self-possession. Disiplin dan tenang, untuk menunggu munculnya kekacauan dan keriuhan di antara musuh: – ini adalah seni mempertahankan diri kepemilikan.

To be near the goal while the enemy is still far from it, to wait at ease while the enemy is toiling and struggling, to be well-fed while the enemy is famished: — this is the art of husbanding one’s strength. Untuk menjadi dekat tujuan sementara musuh masih jauh dari itu, menunggu santai sementara musuh adalah bekerja keras dan berjuang, untuk menjadi baik-makan sementara musuh adalah kelaparan: – ini adalah seni husbanding’s kekuatan satu.

To refrain from intercepting an enemy whose banners are in perfect order, to refrain from attacking an army drawn up in calm and confident array: — this is the art of studying circumstances. Untuk menahan diri dari musuh yang mencegat banner dalam urutan yang sempurna, untuk menahan diri dari menyerang tentara dibuat dalam array tenang dan percaya diri: – ini adalah seni mempelajari keadaan.

It is a military axiom not to advance uphill against the enemy, nor to oppose him when he comes downhill. Ini adalah aksioma militer tidak untuk memajukan bukit melawan musuh, atau untuk menentang dia ketika dia datang menurun.

Do not pursue an enemy who simulates flight; do not attack soldiers whose temper is keen. Jangan mengejar musuh yang mensimulasikan penerbangan, jangan menyerang tentara yang marah adalah tajam.

Do not swallow bait offered by the enemy. Jangan menelan umpan yang ditawarkan oleh musuh. Do not interfere with an army that is returning home. Jangan mengganggu tentara yang pulang ke rumah.

When you surround an army, leave an outlet free. Ketika Anda memasukkan tentara, meninggalkan toko bebas. Do not press a desperate foe too hard. Jangan putus asa menekan musuh terlalu keras.

Such is the art of warfare. Tersebut adalah seni perang.


Chapter 8: Variation in Tactics Bab 8: Variasi dalam Taktik

Sun Tzu said: In war, the general receives his commands from the sovereign, collects his army and concentrates his forces Sun Tzu berkata: Dalam perang, umum menerima perintah dari sultan, mengumpulkan pasukannya dan konsentratnya pasukannya

When in difficult country, do not encamp. Ketika di negara sulit, jangan berkemah. In country where high roads intersect, join hands with your allies. Di negara mana jalan berpotongan tinggi, bergandengan tangan dengan sekutu Anda. Do not linger in dangerously isolated positions. Jangan berlama-lama dalam posisi terisolasi berbahaya. In hemmed-in situations, you must resort to stratagem. In desperate position, you must fight. Dalam mengepun-dalam situasi, Anda harus menggunakan siasat. Pada posisi putus asa, Anda harus berjuang.

There are roads which must not be followed, armies which must be not attacked, towns which must be besieged, positions which must not be contested, commands of the sovereign which must not be obeyed. Ada jalan yang tidak harus diikuti, tentara yang harus tidak diserang, kota-kota yang harus dikepung, posisi yang tidak boleh dibantah, perintah sultan yang tidak harus dipatuhi.

The general who thoroughly understands the advantages that accompany variation of tactics knows how to handle his troops. Jenderal yang benar-benar memahami keuntungan yang menyertai variasi taktik tahu bagaimana menangani pasukannya.

The general who does not understand these, may be well acquainted with the configuration of the country, yet he will not be able to turn his knowledge to practical account. Jenderal yang tidak memahami hal ini, mungkin sudah terbiasa dengan konfigurasi negara, namun ia tidak akan mampu untuk mengubah pengetahuan untuk account praktis.

So, the student of war who is unversed in the art of war of varying his plans, even though he be acquainted with the Five Advantages, will fail to make the best use of his men. Jadi, siswa perang yang tak paham dalam seni perang dari berbagai rencananya, meskipun ia berkenalan dengan Lima Keuntungan, akan gagal untuk membuat penggunaan terbaik dari anak buahnya.

Hence in the wise leader’s plans, considerations of advantage and of disadvantage will be blended together. Maka dalam bijak pemimpin rencana, pertimbangan keuntungan dan kerugian akan dicampur bersama-sama.

If our expectation of advantage be tempered in this way, we may succeed in accomplishing the essential part of our schemes. Jika harapan kami keuntungan akan marah dengan cara ini, kita mungkin berhasil mencapai bagian penting dari skema kita.

If, on the other hand, in the midst of difficulties we are always ready to seize an advantage, we may extricate ourselves from misfortune. Jika, di sisi lain, di tengah-tengah kesulitan kami selalu siap untuk merebut keuntungan, kita dapat melepaskan diri dari malapetaka.

Reduce the hostile chiefs by inflicting damage on them; and make trouble for them, and keep them constantly engaged; hold out specious allurements, and make them rush to any given point. Mengurangi para kepala bermusuhan dengan menimbulkan kerusakan pada mereka, dan membuat masalah bagi mereka, dan membuat mereka terus-menerus bergerak; bertahan daya pikat munafik, dan membuat mereka terburu-buru untuk suatu titik tertentu.

The art of war teaches us to rely not on the likelihood of the enemy’s not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him; not on the chance of his not attacking, but rather on the fact that we have made our position unassailable. Seni perang mengajarkan kita untuk tidak mengandalkan pada kemungkinan musuh tidak datang, tetapi pada kesiapan kita sendiri untuk menerima-Nya, bukan dengan harapan nya tidak menyerang, melainkan pada kenyataan bahwa kita telah membuat posisi kami diserang.

There are five dangerous faults which may affect a general: (1) Recklessness, which leads to destruction; (2) cowardice, which leads to capture; (3) a hasty temper, which can be provoked by insults; (4) a delicacy of honor which is sensitive to shame; (5) over-solicitude for his men, which exposes him to worry and trouble. Ada lima kesalahan berbahaya yang dapat mempengaruhi seorang jenderal: (1) kecerobohan, yang menuju kepada kebinasaan; (2) pengecut, yang mengarah untuk menangkap; (3) marah tergesa-gesa, yang dapat dipicu oleh penghinaan; (4) sebuah kelembutan kehormatan yang peka terhadap rasa malu, (5) over-perhatian bagi laki-laki, yang menghadapkan dia khawatir dan kesulitan.

These are the five besetting sins of a general, ruinous to the conduct of war. Ini adalah lima dosa melanda a, umum membinasakan dengan melakukan perang.

When an army is overthrown and its leader slain, the cause will surely be found among these five dangerous faults. Ketika tentara adalah pemimpin yang digulingkan dan dibunuh, penyebabnya pasti akan ditemukan di antara lima kesalahan berbahaya. Let them be a subject of meditation. Biarkan mereka menjadi subjek dari meditasi.


Chapter 9: The Army on the March Bab 9: Angkatan Bersenjata pada Maret

Sun Tzu said: We come now to the question of encamping the army, and observing signs of the enemy. Sun Tzu berkata: Kita datang sekarang untuk pertanyaan encamping tentara, dan mengamati tanda-tanda musuh. Pass quickly over mountains, and keep in the neighborhood of valleys. Pass cepat atas pegunungan, dan tetap di sekitar lembah.

Camp in high places, facing the sun. Camp di tempat-tempat tinggi, menghadap matahari. Do not climb heights in order to fight. Jangan naik tinggi untuk memerangi. So much for mountain warfare. Begitu banyak untuk perang gunung.

After crossing a river, you should get far away from it. Setelah menyeberangi sungai, Anda harus mendapatkan jauh dari itu.

When an invading force crosses a river in its onward march, do not advance to meet it in mid-stream. Ketika pasukan salib menyerang sebuah sungai Maret seterusnya nya, tidak memajukan bertemu di tengah-stream. It will be best to let half the army get across, and then deliver your attack. Ini akan lebih baik untuk membiarkan setengah tentara menyeberang, dan kemudian memberikan serangan Anda.

If you are anxious to fight, you should not go to meet the invader near a river which he has to cross. Jika Anda ingin berperang, Anda tidak harus pergi untuk memenuhi penyerbu dekat sebuah sungai yang ia telah menyeberang.

Moor your craft higher up than the enemy, and facing the sun. Merapat kerajinan Anda lebih tinggi dari musuh, dan menghadap matahari. Do not move up-stream to meet the enemy. Jangan bergerak up-stream untuk bertemu musuh. So much for river warfare. Begitu banyak untuk perang sungai.

In crossing salt-marshes, your sole concern should be to get over them quickly, without any delay. Di persimpangan garam-rawa-rawa, satu-satunya kekhawatiran Anda harus untuk melupakan mereka dengan cepat, tanpa penundaan.

If forced to fight in a salt-marsh, you should have water and grass near you, and get your back to a clump of trees. So much for operations in salt-marches.

In dry, level country, take up an easily accessible position with rising ground to your right and on your rear, so that the danger may be in front, and safety lie behind. So much for campaigning in flat country.

These are the four useful branches of military knowledge which enabled the Yellow Emperor to vanquish four several sovereigns.

All armies prefer high ground to low and sunny places to dark.

If you are careful of your men, and camp on hard ground, the army will be free from disease of every kind, and this will spell victory.

When you come to a hill or a bank, occupy the sunny side, with the slope on your right rear. Thus you will at once act for the benefit of your soldiers and utilize the natural advantages of the ground.

When, in consequence of heavy rains up-country, a river which you wish to ford is swollen and flecked with foam, you must wait until it subsides.

Country in which there are precipitous cliffs with torrents running between, deep natural hollows, confined places, tangled thickets, quagmires and crevasses, should be left with all possible speed and not approached.

While we keep away from such places, we should get the enemy to approach them; while we face them, we should let the enemy have them on his rear.

If in the neighborhood of your camp there should be any hilly country, ponds surrounded by aquatic grass, hollow basins filled with reeds, or woods with thick undergrowth, they must be carefully routed out and searched; for these are places where men in ambush or insidious spies are likely to be lurking.

When the enemy is close at hand and remains quiet, he is relying on the natural strength of his position.

When he keeps aloof and tries to provoke a battle, he is anxious for the other side to advance.

If his place of encampment is easy of access, he is tendering a bait.

Movement amongst the trees of a forest shows that the enemy is advancing. The appearance of a number of screens in the midst of thick grass means that the enemy wants to make us suspicious.

The rising of birds in their flight is the sign of an ambuscade. Startled beasts indicate that a sudden attack is coming.

When there is dust rising in a high column, it is the sign of chariots advancing; when the dust is low, but spread over a wide area, it betokens the approach of infantry. When it branches out in different directions, it shows that parties have been sent to collect firewood. A few clouds of dust moving to and fro signify that the army is encamping.

Humble words and increased preparations are signs that the enemy is about to advance. Violent language and driving forward as if to the attack are signs that he will retreat.

When the light chariots come out first and take up a position on the wings, it is a sign that the enemy is forming for battle.

Peace proposals unaccompanied by a sworn covenant indicate a plot.

When there is much running about and the soldiers fall into rank, it means that the critical moment has come.

When some are seen advancing and some retreating, it is a lure.

When the soldiers stand leaning on their spears, they are faint from want of food.

If those who are sent to draw water begin by drinking themselves, the army is suffering from thirst.

If the enemy sees an advantage to be gained and makes no effort to secure it, the soldiers are exhausted.

If birds gather on any spot, it is unoccupied. Clamor by night betokens nervousness.

If there is disturbance in the camp, the general’s authority is weak. If the banners and flags are shifted about, sedition is afoot. If the officers are angry, it means that the men are weary.

When an army feeds its horses with grain and kills its cattle for food, and when the men do not hang their cooking-pots over the camp-fires, showing that they will not return to their tents, you may know that they are determined to fight to the death.

The sight of men whispering together in small knots or speaking in subdued tones points to disaffection amongst the rank and file.

Too frequent rewards signify that the enemy is at the end of his resources; too many punishments betray a condition of dire distress.

To begin by bluster, but afterwards to take fright at the enemy’s numbers, shows a supreme lack of intelligence.

When envoys are sent with compliments in their mouths, it is a sign that the enemy wishes for a truce.

If the enemy’s troops march up angrily and remain facing ours for a long time without either joining battle or taking themselves off again, the situation is one that demands great vigilance and circumspection.

If our troops are no more in number than the enemy, that is amply sufficient; it only means that no direct attack can be made. What we can do is simply to concentrate all our available strength, keep a close watch on the enemy, and obtain reinforcements.

He who exercises no forethought but makes light of his opponents is sure to be captured by them.

If soldiers are punished before they have grown attached to you, they will not prove submissive; and, unless submissive, then will be practically useless. If, when the soldiers have become attached to you, punishments are not enforced, they will still be unless.

Therefore soldiers must be treated in the first instance with humanity, but kept under control by means of iron discipline. This is a certain road to victory.

If in training soldiers commands are habitually enforced, the army will be well-disciplined; if not, its discipline will be bad.

If a general shows confidence in his men but always insists on his orders being obeyed, the gain will be mutual.


Chapter 10: Terrain

Sun Tzu said: We may distinguish six kinds of terrain, to wit: (1) Accessible ground; (2) entangling ground; (3) temporizing ground; (4) narrow passes; (5) precipitous heights; (6) positions at a great distance from the enemy.

Ground which can be freely traversed by both sides is called accessible.

With regard to ground of this nature, be before the enemy in occupying the raised and sunny spots, and carefully guard your line of supplies. Then you will be able to fight with advantage.

Ground which can be abandoned but is hard to re-occupy is called entangling.

From a position of this sort, if the enemy is unprepared, you may sally forth and defeat him. But if the enemy is prepared for your coming, and you fail to defeat him, then, return being impossible, disaster will ensue.

When the position is such that neither side will gain by making the first move, it is called temporizing ground.

In a position of this sort, even though the enemy should offer us an attractive bait, it will be advisable not to stir forth, but rather to retreat, thus enticing the enemy in his turn; then, when part of his army has come out, we may deliver our attack with advantage.

With regard to narrow passes, if you can occupy them first, let them be strongly garrisoned and await the advent of the enemy.

Should the army forestall you in occupying a pass, do not go after him if the pass is fully garrisoned, but only if it is weakly garrisoned.

With regard to precipitous heights, if you are beforehand with your adversary, you should occupy the raised and sunny spots, and there wait for him to come up.

If the enemy has occupied them before you, do not follow him, but retreat and try to entice him away.

If you are situated at a great distance from the enemy, and the strength of the two armies is equal, it is not easy to provoke a battle, and fighting will be to your disadvantage.

These six are the principles connected with Earth. The general who has attained a responsible post must be careful to study them.

Now an army is exposed to six several calamities, not arising from natural causes, but from faults for which the general is responsible. These are: (1) Flight; (2) insubordination; (3) collapse; (4) ruin; (5) disorgaization; (6) rout.

Other conditions being equal, if one force is hurled against another ten times its size, the result will be the flight of the former.

When the common soldiers are too strong and their officers too weak, the result is insubordination. When the officers are too strong and the common soldiers too weak, the result is collapse.

When the higher officers are angry and insubordinate, and on meeting the enemy give battle on their own account from a feeling of resentment, before the commander-in-chief can tell whether or no he is in a position to fight, the result is ruin.

When the general is weak and without authority; when his orders are not clear and distinct; when there are no fixes duties assigned to officers and men, and the ranks are formed in a slovenly haphazard manner, the result is utter disorganization.

When a general, unable to estimate the enemy’s strength, allows an inferior force to engage a larger one, or hurls a weak detachment against a powerful one, and neglects to place picked soldiers in the front rank, the result must be rout.

These are six ways of courting defeat, which must be carefully noted by the general who has attained a responsible post.

The natural formation of the country is the soldier’s best ally; but a power of estimating the adversary, of controlling the forces of victory, and of shrewdly calculating difficulties, dangers and distances, constitutes the test of a great general.

He who knows these things, and in fighting puts his knowledge into practice, will win his battles. He who knows them not, nor practices them, will surely be defeated.

If fighting is sure to result in victory, then you must fight, even though the ruler forbid it; if fighting will not result in victory, then you must not fight even at the ruler’s bidding.

The general who advances without coveting fame and retreats without fearing disgrace, whose only thought is to protect his country and do good service for his sovereign, is the jewel of the kingdom.

Regard your soldiers as your children, and they will follow you into the deepest valleys; look upon them as your own beloved sons, and they will stand by you even unto death.

If, however, you are indulgent, but unable to make your authority felt; kind-hearted, but unable to enforce your commands; and incapable, moreover, of quelling disorder: then your soldiers must be likened to spoilt children; they are useless for any practical purpose.

If we know that our own men are in a condition to attack, but are unaware that the enemy is not open to attack, we have gone only halfway towards victory.

If we know that the enemy is open to attack, but are unaware that our own men are not in a condition to attack, we have gone only halfway towards victory.

If we know that the enemy is open to attack, and also know that our men are in a condition to attack, but are unaware that the nature of the ground makes fighting impracticable, we have still gone only halfway towards victory.

Hence the experienced soldier, once in motion, is never bewildered; once he has broken camp, he is never at a loss.

Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and know yourself, your victory will not stand in doubt; if you know Heaven and know Earth, you may make your victory complete.


Chapter 11: The Nine Situations

Sun Tzu said: The art of war recognizes nine varieties of ground: (1) Dispersive ground; (2) facile ground; (3) contentious ground; (4) open ground; (5) ground of intersecting highways; (6) serious ground; (7) difficult ground; (8) hemmed-in ground; (9) desperate ground.

When a chieftain is fighting in his own territory, it is dispersive ground.

When he has penetrated into hostile territory, but to no great distance, it is facile ground.

Ground the possession of which imports great advantage to either side, is contentious ground.

Ground on which each side has liberty of movement is open ground.

Ground which forms the key to three contiguous states, so that he who occupies it first has most of the Empire at his command, is a ground of intersecting highways.

When an army has penetrated into the heart of a hostile country, leaving a number of fortified cities in its rear, it is serious ground.

Mountain forests, rugged steeps, marshes and fens — all country that is hard to traverse: this is difficult ground.

Ground which is reached through narrow gorges, and from which we can only retire by tortuous paths, so that a small number of the enemy would suffice to crush a large body of our men: this is hemmed in ground.

Ground on which we can only be saved from destruction by fighting without delay, is desperate ground.

On dispersive ground, therefore, fight not. On facile ground, halt not. On contentious ground, attack not.

On open ground, do not try to block the enemy’s way. On the ground of intersecting highways, join hands with your allies.

On serious ground, gather in plunder. In difficult ground, keep steadily on the march.

On hemmed-in ground, resort to stratagem. On desperate ground, fight.

Those who were called skillful leaders of old knew how to drive a wedge between the enemy’s front and rear; to prevent co-operation between his large and small divisions; to hinder the good troops from rescuing the bad, the officers from rallying their men.

When the enemy’s men were united, they managed to keep them in disorder.

When it was to their advantage, they made a forward move; when otherwise, they stopped still.

If asked how to cope with a great host of the enemy in orderly array and on the point of marching to the attack, I should say: “Begin by seizing something which your opponent holds dear; then he will be amenable to your will.”

Rapidity is the essence of war: take advantage of the enemy’s unreadiness, make your way by unexpected routes, and attack unguarded spots.

The following are the principles to be observed by an invading force: The further you penetrate into a country, the greater will be the solidarity of your troops, and thus the defenders will not prevail against you.

Make forays in fertile country in order to supply your army with food.

Carefully study the well-being of your men, and do not overtax them. Concentrate your energy and hoard your strength. Keep your army continually on the move, and devise unfathomable plans.

Throw your soldiers into positions whence there is no escape, and they will prefer death to flight. If they will face death, there is nothing they may not achieve. Officers and men alike will put forth their uttermost strength.

Soldiers when in desperate straits lose the sense of fear. If there is no place of refuge, they will stand firm. If they are in hostile country, they will show a stubborn front. If there is no help for it, they will fight hard.

Thus, without waiting to be marshaled, the soldiers will be constantly on the qui vive; without waiting to be asked, they will do your will; without restrictions, they will be faithful; without giving orders, they can be trusted.

Prohibit the taking of omens, and do away with superstitious doubts. Then, until death itself comes, no calamity need be feared.

If our soldiers are not overburdened with money, it is not because they have a distaste for riches; if their lives are not unduly long, it is not because they are disinclined to longevity.

On the day they are ordered out to battle, your soldiers may weep, those sitting up bedewing their garments, and those lying down letting the tears run down their cheeks. But let them once be brought to bay, and they will display the courage of a Chu or a Kuei.

The skillful tactician may be likened to the shuai-jan. Now the shuai-jan is a snake that is found in the ChUng mountains. Strike at its head, and you will be attacked by its tail; strike at its tail, and you will be attacked by its head; strike at its middle, and you will be attacked by head and tail both.

Asked if an army can be made to imitate the shuai-jan, I should answer, Yes. For the men of Wu and the men of Yueh are enemies; yet if they are crossing a river in the same boat and are caught by a storm, they will come to each other’s assistance just as the left hand helps the right.

Hence it is not enough to put one’s trust in the tethering of horses, and the burying of chariot wheels in the ground

The principle on which to manage an army is to set up one standard of courage which all must reach.

How to make the best of both strong and weak — that is a question involving the proper use of ground.

Thus the skillful general conducts his army just as though he were leading a single man, willy-nilly, by the hand.

It is the business of a general to be quiet and thus ensure secrecy; upright and just, and thus maintain order.

He must be able to mystify his officers and men by false reports and appearances, and thus keep them in total ignorance.

By altering his arrangements and changing his plans, he keeps the enemy without definite knowledge. By shifting his camp and taking circuitous routes, he prevents the enemy from anticipating his purpose.

At the critical moment, the leader of an army acts like one who has climbed up a height and then kicks away the ladder behind him. He carries his men deep into hostile territory before he shows his hand.

He burns his boats and breaks his cooking-pots; like a shepherd driving a flock of sheep, he drives his men this way and that, and nothing knows whither he is going.

To muster his host and bring it into danger: — this may be termed the business of the general.

The different measures suited to the nine varieties of ground; the expediency of aggressive or defensive tactics; and the fundamental laws of human nature: these are things that must most certainly be studied.

When invading hostile territory, the general principle is, that penetrating deeply brings cohesion; penetrating but a short way means dispersion.

When you leave your own country behind, and take your army across neighborhood territory, you find yourself on critical ground. When there are means of communication on all four sides, the ground is one of intersecting highways.

When you penetrate deeply into a country, it is serious ground. When you penetrate but a little way, it is facile ground.

When you have the enemy’s strongholds on your rear, and narrow passes in front, it is hemmed-in ground. When there is no place of refuge at all, it is desperate ground.

Therefore, on dispersive ground, I would inspire my men with unity of purpose. On facile ground, I would see that there is close connection between all parts of my army.

On contentious ground, I would hurry up my rear.

On open ground, I would keep a vigilant eye on my defenses. On ground of intersecting highways, I would consolidate my alliances.

On serious ground, I would try to ensure a continuous stream of supplies. On difficult ground, I would keep pushing on along the road.

On hemmed-in ground, I would block any way of retreat. On desperate ground, I would proclaim to my soldiers the hopelessness of saving their lives.

For it is the soldier’s disposition to offer an obstinate resistance when surrounded, to fight hard when he cannot help himself, and to obey promptly when he has fallen into danger.

We cannot enter into alliance with neighboring princes until we are acquainted with their designs. We are not fit to lead an army on the march unless we are familiar with the face of the country — its mountains and forests, its pitfalls and precipices, its marshes and swamps. We shall be unable to turn natural advantages to account unless we make use of local guides.

To be ignored of any one of the following four or five principles does not befit a warlike prince.

When a warlike prince attacks a powerful state, his generalship shows itself in preventing the concentration of the enemy’s forces. He overawes his opponents, and their allies are prevented from joining against him.

Hence he does not strive to ally himself with all and sundry, nor does he foster the power of other states. He carries out his own secret designs, keeping his antagonists in awe. Thus he is able to capture their cities and overthrow their kingdoms.

Bestow rewards without regard to rule, issue orders without regard to previous arrangements; and you will be able to handle a whole army as though you had to do with but a single man.

Confront your soldiers with the deed itself; never let them know your design. When the outlook is bright, bring it before their eyes; but tell them nothing when the situation is gloomy.

Place your army in deadly peril, and it will survive; plunge it into desperate straits, and it will come off in safety.

For it is precisely when a force has fallen into harm’s way that is capable of striking a blow for victory.

Success in warfare is gained by carefully accommodating ourselves to the enemy’s purpose.

By persistently hanging on the enemy’s flank, we shall succeed in the long run in killing the commander-in-chief.

This is called ability to accomplish a thing by sheer cunning.

On the day that you take up your command, block the frontier passes, destroy the official tallies, and stop the passage of all emissaries.

Be stern in the council-chamber, so that you may control the situation.

If the enemy leaves a door open, you must rush in.

Forestall your opponent by seizing what he holds dear, and subtly contrive to time his arrival on the ground.

Walk in the path defined by rule, and accommodate yourself to the enemy until you can fight a decisive battle.

At first, then, exhibit the coyness of a maiden, until the enemy gives you an opening; afterwards emulate the rapidity of a running hare, and it will be too late for the enemy to oppose you.


Chapter 12: The Attack by Fire

Sun Tzu said: There are five ways of attacking with fire. The first is to burn soldiers in their camp; the second is to burn stores; the third is to burn baggage trains; the fourth is to burn arsenals and magazines; the fifth is to hurl dropping fire amongst the enemy.

In order to carry out an attack, we must have means available. The material for raising fire should always be kept in readiness.

There is a proper season for making attacks with fire, and special days for starting a conflagration.

The proper season is when the weather is very dry; the special days are those when the moon is in the constellations of the Sieve, the Wall, the Wing or the Cross-bar; for these four are all days of rising wind.

In attacking with fire, one should be prepared to meet five possible developments: (1) When fire breaks out inside to enemy’s camp, respond at once with an attack from without. (2) If there is an outbreak of fire, but the enemy’s soldiers remain quiet, bide your time and do not attack. (3) When the force of the flames has reached its height, follow it up with an attack, if that is practicable; if not, stay where you are. (4) If it is possible to make an assault with fire from without, do not wait for it to break out within, but deliver your attack at a favorable moment. (5) When you start a fire, be to windward of it. Do not attack from the leeward.

A wind that rises in the daytime lasts long, but a night breeze soon falls.

In every army, the five developments connected with fire must be known, the movements of the stars calculated, and a watch kept for the proper days.

Hence those who use fire as an aid to the attack show intelligence; those who use water as an aid to the attack gain an accession of strength.

By means of water, an enemy may be intercepted, but not robbed of all his belongings.

Unhappy is the fate of one who tries to win his battles and succeed in his attacks without cultivating the spirit of enterprise; for the result is waste of time and general stagnation.

Hence the saying: The enlightened ruler lays his plans well ahead; the good general cultivates his resources.

Move not unless you see an advantage; use not your troops unless there is something to be gained; fight not unless the position is critical.

No ruler should put troops into the field merely to gratify his own spleen; no general should fight a battle simply out of pique.

If it is to your advantage, make a forward move; if not, stay where you are.

Anger may in time change to gladness; vexation may be succeeded by content.

But a kingdom that has once been destroyed can never come again into being; nor can the dead ever be brought back to life.

Hence the enlightened ruler is heedful, and the good general full of caution. This is the way to keep a country at peace and an army intact.


Chapter 13: The Use of Spies

Sun Tzu said: Raising a host of a hundred thousand men and marching them great distances entails heavy loss on the people and a drain on the resources of the State. The daily expenditure will amount to a thousand ounces of silver. There will be commotion at home and abroad, and men will drop down exhausted on the highways. As many as seven hundred thousand families will be impeded in their labor.

Hostile armies may face each other for years, striving for the victory which is decided in a single day. This being so, to remain in ignorance of the enemy’s condition simply because one grudges the outlay of a hundred ounces of silver in honors and emoluments, is the height of inhumanity.

One who acts thus is no leader of men, no present help to his sovereign, no master of victory.

Thus, what enables the wise sovereign and the good general to strike and conquer, and achieve things beyond the reach of ordinary men, is foreknowledge.

Now this foreknowledge cannot be elicited from spirits; it cannot be obtained inductively from experience, nor by any deductive calculation.

Knowledge of the enemy’s dispositions can only be obtained from other men.

Hence the use of spies, of whom there are five classes: (1) Local spies; (2) inward spies; (3) converted spies; (4) doomed spies; (5) surviving spies.

When these five kinds of spy are all at work, none can discover the secret system. This is called “divine manipulation of the threads.” It is the sovereign’s most precious faculty.

Having local spies means employing the services of the inhabitants of a district.

Having inward spies, making use of officials of the enemy.

Having converted spies, getting hold of the enemy’s spies and using them for our own purposes.

Having doomed spies, doing certain things openly for purposes of deception, and allowing our spies to know of them and report them to the enemy.

Surviving spies, finally, are those who bring back news from the enemy’s camp.

Hence it is that which none in the whole army are more intimate relations to be maintained than with spies. None should be more liberally rewarded. In no other business should greater secrecy be preserved.

Spies cannot be usefully employed without a certain intuitive sagacity.

They cannot be properly managed without benevolence and straightforwardness.

Without subtle ingenuity of mind, one cannot make certain of the truth of their reports.

Be subtle! be subtle! and use your spies for every kind of business.

If a secret piece of news is divulged by a spy before the time is ripe, he must be put to death together with the man to whom the secret was told.

Whether the object be to crush an army, to storm a city, or to assassinate an individual, it is always necessary to begin by finding out the names of the attendants, the aides-de-camp, and door-keepers and sentries of the general in command. Our spies must be commissioned to ascertain these.

The enemy’s spies who have come to spy on us must be sought out, tempted with bribes, led away and comfortably housed. Thus they will become converted spies and available for our service.

It is through the information brought by the converted spy that we are able to acquire and employ local and inward spies.

It is owing to his information, again, that we can cause the doomed spy to carry false tidings to the enemy.

Lastly, it is by his information that the surviving spy can be used on appointed occasions.

The end and aim of spying in all its five varieties is knowledge of the enemy; and this knowledge can only be derived, in the first instance, from the converted spy. Hence it is essential that the converted spy be treated with the utmost liberality.

Of old, the rise of the Yin dynasty was due to I Chih who had served under the Hsia. Likewise, the rise of the Chou dynasty was due to Lu Ya who had served under the Yin.

Hence it is only the enlightened ruler and the wise general who will use the highest intelligence of the army for purposes of spying and thereby they achieve great results. Spies are a most important element in war, because on them depends an army’s ability to move.

~ oleh albar pada September 2, 2010.

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